The Arikara are the northern-most Caddoan-speaking tribe, whose language is thought to be a dialect of Pawnee (Parks 2001). However, while many early travelers noted the distinct linguistic similarities between the various tribes of the historic Arikara and the Pawnee, the two tribe’s languages are not mutually intelligible to modern speakers (Denig 1961; Parks [...]
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The Arapaho are an Algonquian-speaking group; therefore from a greater language group that also includes the Cree, Blackfoot, Ojibwa, Chippewa, Cheyenne, and Gros Ventre tribes (Lowie 1954). The Arapaho have been recorded as having five divisions within their tribe: the Hit‘un’nno (The Begging People), Baasa w’ une‘nno (The Big Lodge People or Shelter Man), [...]